1. St. Simons Island
  2. Brunswick
  3. Jekyll Island

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    Georgia Historical Marker:


    Begun in year 1800 as New Hope Methodist Church on Laurel Grove Plantation 2 miles S. present site. 1833 original building moved to this site and name changed to Emanuel. Hand hewn pillars and wooden pegs are visible.

    1799 George Clark, sent by Bishop Asbury to St. Mary's, started Methodist Societies in Glynn Co. 1829 Quarterly Conf. for St. Mary's and St. Illa Ct. held here. Wm. Gassoway - pastor; James Helveston - class leader. 1841 St. Illa Ct. (Satilla) became the Brunswick Ct. with Emanuel as one of 11 preaching points. Since 1799 Emanuel has been in continuous service.


    A Man Named Wesley Passed This Way (Side 1)

    A Mission By The Sea

    Battle of Gully Hole Creek
    Georgia Historical Marker:

    Battle of Gully Hole Creek. During the late morning of July 7, 1742 Georgia Rangers guarding the military road approach to the town of Frederica sighted a force of over 100 Spanish soldiers and their Indian allies. James Edward Oglethorpe, founder of Georgia, quickly organized a force composed of the Highland Independent Company, Rangers and Indian friends and courageously led the assault on the Spanish at a place near this marker. The fighting was fierce and lasted almost one hour as Frederica's defenders routed their invaders. Spanish losses numbered more than one-third of their force. One Spanish captain was killed and another was captured in the intense fighting. Oglethorpe's losses were light. Although this battle was brief, it turned out to be the heaviest fighting of the St. Simons Island campaign. Oglethorpe's victory settled the question over ownership of this disputed territory between Spain and Great Britain. It also signaled the end of Frederica's existence since its regiment was disbanded in 1749.

    063-42 Erected by Governor Zell Miller 1992

    Blue Star Memorial - Blythe Island

    Blue Star Memorial - Rest Area

    A tribute to the Armed Forces that have defended the United States of America SPONSORED BY The Garden Club of Georgia, Inc. IN COOPERATION WITH St. Simons Island Council of Garden Clubs Honoring Lt. David Anderson Everett, U.S.N. Returned POW from Vietnam

    Area: Interstate 95 Location: Visitors Center between exits 38 and 42.

    Blue Star Memorial Marker - Overlook Park

    Boat House Site, The

    This is the site of the Jekyll Island Club Boat House where the 100 foot steamer The Jekyll Island was stored during the off season. (The Club season was usually from after New Years until before Easter).

    There was no Jekyll Creek bridge (dedicated 1954), no Sidney Lanier bridge (opened 1956) in the Jekyll Island Club Era. Many Club members entrained to Brunswick on their plush private railroad cars. There they were met at the wharf by the steamer The Jekyll Island; The Hattie; The Sybil (45 foot Naphtha Launch named for Sybil Brewster); The Kitty (named for Kitty Lawrence, niece of Charles Lanier, a President of The Club). These launches were used as pleasure craft at the convenience of the Club members for fishing, excursions, and to bring supplies and mail from Brunswick.

    Other members arrived by yacht at the dock or, if the craft was too large for the shallow water there, anchored in the channel and were brought to shore by smaller craft.

    James A. Clark was Captain of Boats and summer manager of the Jekyll Island Club for over forty years.


    Located near water on Riverview Dr. at the southern entrance to Jekyll Island Club Historic Site, Jekyll Island

    WARNING: The marsh contains boards with nails in them.

    Boys Estate (Elizafield Plantation)

    Boys Estate, Georgia's town just for boys, is located one-half mile west of here, on a part of historic Elizafield Plantation. Elizafield, first the home of Dr. Robert Grant, later of his son, Hugh Fraser Grant, was one of the rich River Plantations of the early 19th century. It was cultivated intensively in rice and sugar cane, and the ruins of a large sugar mill built of tabby are still in evidence.

    In 1935, Cator Woolford gave this tract to Georgia for a State Park, and in 1945 it was made available by the Legislature for the establishment of Boys Estate. 063-22 GEORGIA HISTORICAL COMMISSION

    Brown Cottage
    Georgia Historical Marker:

    BROWN COTTAGE CHIMNEY McEvers Bayard Brown, New York Banker

    This chimney is all that remains of the cottage of Bayard Brown, original member of Jekyll Island Club. In his gay, young days, he built this cottage at Jekyll, overlooking the marshes. He erected a bridge to reach the isolated home, built stables for his horses, and furnished the cottage elegantly for his bride-to-be. But the wedding never came off. The house deteri- orated and was torn down.

    This eccentric millionaire was known as "The Hermit of the Essex Coast" in England. At the age of 37, he became an exile from America, sailing on his yacht Valfreyia. "Unrequited love" is said to be the cause of his renouncing his native land to become a legendary port-bound yachtsman for 36 years. On the Essex Coast, his yacht engines were always in readiness for a sea voyage. His crew of 18 waited in vain for the order to put to sea.

    One thing was certain. Mr. Brown had plenty of money - a million dollars a year, according to one account. Sometimes he would toss gold sovereigns from his yacht for anyone to pick up. Anyone who mentioned "America" in his presence was dismissed.

    He died in 1926 requesting that his body be returned to America on the Valfreyia.


    Georgia Historical Marker:


    During World War II, the J.A. Jones Construction Company operated a plant approx. 1 mile south of this point on Brunswick's waterfront. Between 1942 and 1944, a skilled labor force of over 16,000 men and women worked in service to the Allied war effort, producing 99 steel vessels for the U.S. Merchant Marines. These vessels served as both cargo and troop carriers, and their reputation for keeping vital supply lines open earned them the name of "Liberty Ships."

    Each month, dedicated shipyard workers produced four of these 447-foot, 3500-ton steel vessels. During December, 1944, with the "Battle of the Bulge" raging in Europe, the Navy requested six ships. In response, these determined patriots built an astounding seven "Liberty Ships".

    The J.A. Jones Construction Company and the people they employed in Brunswick's shipyards came to symbolize the patriotic duty and tireless efforts of America's wartime home front.

    Area: Brunswick, Georgia Location: Mary Ross Park. Intersection of Bay and Gloucester Streets.

    Captain Wylly Road
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    There were two Captain Wyllys in the history of Jekyll. It is believed the road was named for Charles Spalding Wylly (1836- 1923), Captain in the Confederate Army, 1st Georgia Regulars, a descendant of Clement Martin, who was granted, on April 5, 1768, Jekyll Island by the Crown. His grandfather, Captain William Campbell Wylly, remaining loyal to the British General Prevost crossed the St. Marys and marched on Savannah. After the Revo- lution he moved to Nassau and was made Governor of New Providence. In 1807 he returned to Georgia, lived first on Jekyll, then St. Simons. Captain Alexander Campbell Wylly was born in Belfast in 1759, moving to Savannah from there.

    This road is one of few that now bear names given by the Jekyll Island Club members. What is now Beachview Drive consist- ed of three shell roads: Morgan (for John Pierpont Morgan); Bourne (for Frederick G. Bourne, Director of Singer Sewing Machine Company and President of Jekyll Island Club 1914-1919); Lanier (for Charles Lanier, original member of Club, and President of Jekyll Island Club 1897-1913). He was a kinsman of Sidney Lanier, poet-author of "Marshes of Glynn."


    Christ Church Cemetery
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    Here are buried former Rectors of Christ Church and their families, the families of early settlers and of plantation days, officers of the British Army, and soldiers of every war in which our country fought. The oldest tombstone is dated 1803 but it is believed that there were a number of burials here before that time.


    GHM 063-35A

    Christ Church, or Christ Episcopal Church
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    This congregation was established as a mission of the Church of England in February, 1736. The Rev. Charles Wesley, ordained priest of that Church, conducted the first services in the chapel within the walls of Fort Frederica. The Rev. John Wesley, Rector of Christ Episcopal Church, Savannah, also served this mission. Under the name of St. James, this was one of the eight original parishes established in 1758. After the Revolution, this and other churches which had been served continuously by clergymen of the Church of England formed the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Christ Church was incorporated by the State Legislature in 1808 and given a glebe of 108 acres: and in 1823 was one of the three parishes organizing the diocese of Georgia. The first Church built on this property in 1820 was almost destroyed during the War Between the States. The present building was erected on the same site in 1884.



    Colored Memorial School and Risley High School
    From marker:

    Colored Memorial School and Risley High School

    Brunswick's first public school for African Americans opened in 1870 as the Freedmen's School, later changed to Risley School to honor Captain Douglas Gilbert Risley, who raised funds for the school's construction. In 1923 the adjacent building, Colored Memorial High School, was built and named to honor African-American veterans in World War I. In 1936 Risley High School was built on the site of the 1870 Freedmen'd School and remained in service until 1955 when a new Risley High School was constructed. Both the Colored Memorial School and Risley High School are landmarks of African-American education in Glynn County. Erected by the Georgia Historical Society, the Glynn County Board of Education, and the Risley Alumni Association, Inc. 2004.4 63-5


    Colored Memorial School was built in January 1922 and was renamed Risley High School in honor of Captain Douglas G. Risley. It is located at 1800 Albany Street in Brunswick. The first building, built in 1922, is in solid condition and is an excellent example of brick masonry and wood frame construction with Neoclassical Revival elements. The second building was constructed in 1936 and is a two-story building of brick masonry and wood frame construction. Both buildings retain original historic qualities and serve as an historic landmark. Both sites have recently applied for addition to the National Register of Historic Places. The Board of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands acquired the property from the American Missionary Association after the Civil War. The Glynn County Board of Education has owned the property since 1900. These schools have continued to operate since their opening. Originally intended as a school for African Americans, it is one of the few schools that survived desegregation. For more information, please contact the Glynn County School Board or Downtown Development Authority.

    Related:, Harrington Community, Needwood Church and School

    Georgia: Brunswick - Risley School Exhibition. [The American missionary. / Volume 32, Issue 10, Oct 1878]

    Page(s) 303



    Brunswick -- Risey School Exhibition. AS SEEN BY A SOUTHERNER.

    This school is taught by S. B. Morse, a graduate of Atlanta University. The following account from a local newspaper.

    MR. EDITOR: It has ever been a source of unfeigned pleasure to me to observe any efforts tending to the elevation and refinement of humanity. Hence, it was no less a pleasure than surprise last evening when I found so marvelously successful an effort in that direction, as evinced in the concert and exhibition--the closing exercises of the Risley School. Mr. Morse (a graduate of the University of Atlanta) may justly congratulate himself upon the proficiency attained by his pupils, considering the great difficulties and discouragements under which he has necessarily had to labor.

    The colored people are born natural musicians; but the time, harmony and smooth rendering of the "part-songs" last night gave indubitable evidence of thorough culture and faithful practice. The declamation by the young scholars displayed good powers of memory and hard study. Their enunciation was distinct and perfect. The selections were excellent. With the single exception of an interruption by a few disagreeable, unmannerly boys, who evidently had as little respect for propriety, the affair went off without a break. Quite a number of white persons were present. Just before closing the exercises, Mr. Morse made a short and pertinent address. stating the numerous difficulties under which he had labored, but offering "the fruits of his labors" as the test of his fidelity and capacity for filling the position he proudly claimed, of "teacher." The Honorable President of the Board of Education and Mr. Kenrick, the county-school commissioner, were called upon for speeches, and expressed their hearty gratification at the degree of proficiency and the evidence of faithful study on the part of the school, and their satisfaction at the marked improvement in order, manner, and the advance in education, as clearly shown by their present exhibition.

    We have to congratulate ourselves upon possessing a most quiet, respectable and law-abiding colored element. Their comfortable homes, with well-stocked gardens; their numerous churches, some quite pretentious in architecture, and, above all, their large and substantial free school, give proof that there is no question of their enjoyment of all "the rights, titles and emoluments" of a "free and independent citizen" in Brunswic

    Confederate Battery
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    In 1861, Confederate battery positions on Jekyll Island were equipped with one 42-pounder gun and four 32-pounder navy guns en barbette, each having about 60 rounds of shot and shell. Casemates,, hot shot furnace and magazines are recorded, also. Of greater strength than batteries on St. Simons Island, the earthworks of palmetto logs, heavy timber, sandbags, and rail- road irons were mounted for the protection of Brunswick. February 10, 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee requested permission from Gov. Joseph E. Brown to dismantle the stronghold as "the inhabitants of the island and Brunswick have removed themselves and property" to inland points. Maj. Edward C. Anderson re- moved the guns, sending them to Savannah. March 9, 1862, Lt. Miller of the USS Mohican landed a rifle company and marines, hoisting the Union flag over the isalnd. In January, 1863, to stregthen fortifications at Port Royal, S. C., a Federal force was sent by flatboat to seize the railroad irons.. Some of the men who had helped build the defenses guided the detachment to them and "the men enjoyed demolishing them far more than they had relished their construction."



    Confederate Battery Jekyll Island, Georgia

    Located on the north end of Jekyll Island, this area served briefly as a battery during the Civil War. The Confederate Army abandoned this site in early 1862 because most of the people it was designed to protect had moved farther inland. All that remains now is a historical marker to remind visitors of its existence. The marker is located on Riverview Drive south of the Horton House by the airport.

    Delegal's Fort
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    The first fortification built by the British on the South End of St. Simons Island was erected near this site in April, 1736, by soldiers of the South Carolina Independent Company under command of Lieutenant Philip Delegal. Before coming to St. Simons these soldiers had been stationed at Fort Frederick, near Port Royal, South Carolina.

    The fortification erected here, known as "Delegal's Fort at Sea Point", commanded the entrance to the harbor, being located "so that all ships... must pass within shot of the point".

    In 1738, when a regiment of British soldiers was brought to St. Simons Island, Lieutenant Delegal and his soldiers were taken into Oglethorpe's Regiment. Fort St. Simons was then built taking the site of Delegal's Fort. Most of the area covered by this fortification has been washed away.


    Demere Road
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    From the site of the Battle of Bloody Marsh to the intersection with Ocean Boulevard, this road is part of the Military Road, sometimes called The King's High Road, which was built by Frederica setllers in 1738 to connect Fort Frederica and Fort St. Simons. It was used by British and Spanish forces during the Spanish invasion of 1742 and is the only part of the old Military Road is still in use.


    Gascoigne Bluff
    Georgia Histocial Marker:

    Throughout the ages Gascoigne Bluff has been the gateway to St. Simons Island. An Indian village was located here. Capt. James Gascoigne of HM Sloop-of-war, HAWK, which convoyed the Frederica settlers on their voyage across the Atlantic in 1736, established headquarters for Georgia's naval forces and had his plantation here. In the invasion of 1742 the Spaniards landed at this bluff.

    Live oak timbers for the building of USS CONSTITUTION, better known as "OLD IRONSIDES," and the other vessels of our first US Navy were cut on St. Simons and loaded here in 1794 for shipment North where the vessels were built.

    During the Plantation Era these lands became the sea island cotton plantation of James Hamilton. A wharf here was the shipping center for the St. Simons Plantations.

    1874-1902 this Bluff was lined with great mills, where cypress and long leaf yellow pine timbers were sawed into limber and shipped to all parts of the world.

    The causeway built in 1924, connecting St. Simons with the mainland, has its terminus here.

    In 1949 the Methodist Church acquired the upper part of the Bluff and established EPWORTH-BY-THE-SEA as a Conference Center.


    A plaque at the St. Simons end of the F.J. Torras Causeway reads:

    In 1736 Captain Gascoigne, of the British Sloop-of-war Hawk, established here at Gascoigne Bluff the base for the naval defense of the colony of Georgia. The Spaniards landed here in the invasion of 1742.

    In 1794 live oak timbers were cut on St. Simons, loaded from this bluff and sent to Boston to be used in the construction of the frigate Constitution, better known as "Old Ironsides"


    Gascoigne's Bluff St. Simons Island, Georgia

    Epworth-By-The-Sea is located on Sea Island Causeway and is a Methodist Conference Center that is also home to many of St. Simons Island's historic sites. Nearby Gascoigne's Bluff, named after Captain James Gascoigne who brought settlers to St. Simons Island, was the site of the Spanish invasion during the War of Jenkins' Ear in 1742. In the late 1700s, live oaks from this area were cut down and used to build the first ship of the United States Navy and the USS Constitution or Old Ironsides. Hamilton Plantation, described by Fanny Kemble as "by far the finest place on the island," developed here in 1793. After the Civil War, the plantation became the center of lumber mill operations in St. Simons. As the lumber industry declined on the island, so did the state of the plantation; so in 1927 Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Lewis purchased Hamilton in order to restore the plantation. The main house had burned down in 1885 so the Lewises lived in a house built during the mill era. In 1949, the South Georgia Conference of the Methodist Church purchased Hamilton Plantation. Since then, the conference center has been responsible for maintaining the area's lovely history. It was given its new name after Epworth, England, the birthplace of Charles and John Wesley, founders of Methodism.

    Related Sites: Cassina Garden Club Slave Cabins Gascoigne Bluff Ebo Landing

    Georgia Navy, The
    Georgia Historical Marker:

    The Georgia Navy

    During the American Revolution four heavily-armed row galleys were constructed in Savannah for the Georgia Navy, all underwritten by the Continental Congress. In nearby Frederica River, beginning at dawn on April. 19, 1778, Georgia galleys Lee, Washington, and Bulloch, commanded by Colonel Samuel Elbert, attacked HM brigantine Hinchinbrook, the armed sloop Rebecca, and an armed watering brig. The British attempted to retaliate, but were out-gunned and out-maneuvered. As they tried to gain an advantage by moving down river their ships grounded, were abandoned, and captured. This remarkable victory boosted patriot morale and delayed by more than eight months the British invasion of Georgia.

    Erected by the Georgia Historical Society, Georgia Society Sons of the American Revolution, Coastal Georgia Historical Society, and Fort Frederica National Monument

    2005.2 63-6

    Located on Frederica Road past Fort Frederica National Monument entrance, St. Simons Island

    Georgia's First Brewery
    Georgia's First Brewery

    Large pieces of tabby seen here on the bank of the creek, now known as duBignon Creek, mark the site and are the remains of the first brewery established in Georgia. Crops of barley, rye, and hops, planted and raised in Horton's fields on Jekyll, were used in making beer for the soldiers at nearby Frederica on St. Simons Island.

    Major William Horton, of Oglethorpe’s Regiment, was the first English resident of Jekyll Island. The remains of Horton’s tabby house stand northeast of this brewery.

    Glynn County Historical Marker

    Glynn County, one of the eight original Counties of Georgia, was organized under the 1777 Constitution of the State of Georgia. It was named in honor of John Glynn, a member of the British House of Commons who defended the cause of the American Colonies in the difficulties which led to the Revolutionary War.

    Glynn County contains the lands formerly included in the Colonial Parishes of St. David, St. Patrick, and St. James, which had been organized in 1758.

    Among the early officials were the Hon. George Walton, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, Judge of the Superior Court; James Spalding, Alexander Bissett, Richard Leake, and Raymond Demere, Justices of the Inferior Court; John Goode, Clerk of the Inferior and Superior Courts; John Palmer, Sheriff; John Burnett, Register of Probates; Richard Bradley, Tax Collector; Martin Palmer, Tax Receiver; Joshua Miller, Surveyor; Jacob Helvestine, Coroner; George Handley (who in 1788 was elected Governor of the State of Georgia) and Christopher Hillary, Legislators; George Purvis, Richard Pritchard, Moses Burnett, John Piles, and John Burnett, Commissioners of Glynn Academy.


    Harrington Hall
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    Capt. Raymond Demere, a native of France, served many years in the British army at Gibraltar before coming to Georgia in 1738 as an officer in Oglethorpe's Regiment. His home, Harrington Hall, was located at this site.

    Later generations of the Demere family lived at the south end of St. Simons Island where their plantation was called Mulberry Grove.


    Hopeton-on-the-Altamaha Home of James Hamilton Couper
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    Hopeton Plantation, of which Altama is a part, lies about 1.4 miles West of here. A model rice and sugar Plantation of the early 19th century, described in books by several travelers from Europe, Hopeton is best remem- bered as the home of James Hamilton Couper. "A pioneer in the agricultural and industrial development of Georgia and the South," James Hamilton Couper was an archaeologist, a geologist, a conchologist, architect and historian - a man whose abilities and accom- plishments would be recognized in any time. 063-23 GEORGIA HISTORICAL COMMISSION

    Jekyll Island
    Jekyll Island

    9 miles long, 1 1ŕ4 mile wide, 11 miles of beach.

    Jekyll Island, Indian hunting and fishing ground, pirate stronghold, held by Spain for more than a century from 1566, was named by Oglethorpe to honor his friend, Sir Joseph Jekyll, of the Colony of Georgia. The great trees on this island are among “Georgia’s seven natural wonders”, the broad white beach is unexcelled.

    Major William Horton, officer of Oglethorpe’s Regiment, had his plantation here. Later, Jekyll Island was owned by Clement Martin and by Richard Leake. After the Revolutionary War, the island was owned by Poulain duBignon and his descendants for a century. In 1886, after a world-wide search for a beautiful, healthy, quiet, and private vacation site, a group of America’s wealthiest men purchased Jekyll Island. For 56 years (1886-1942), members of the exclusive Jekyll Island Club relaxed on the island.

    The State of Georgia bought Jekyll Island from the Club in 1947 for a State Park.

    Marker was in parkway on road entering island.

    Jekyll Island Club Wharf
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    Here anchored the most luxurious pleasure craft in the world during the existence of the Jekyll Island Club, 1886-1942.

    No other yacht was comparable to John Pierpont Morgan's several Corsairs. Corsair II, too large to dock, anchored in the channel. Morgan was escorted ashore by a flotilla of small craft, after a cannon had sounded off his arrival in these waters. Corsair II was 304 ft. overall, beam 33 1/2 ft., draft 17 ft., speed 19 knots, tonnage 1,600. About this Corsair Morgan, when asked how much it cost, made his classic remark: "If you have to consider the cost you have no business with a yacht."

    Other palatial yachts owned by Jekyll Island Club members were: Pierre Lorillard's Caimen, James Stillman's Wanda, Astors' Nourmahal, Vanderbilt's Alvah and Valiant. H. Manville's Hi Esmaro, Jr., Pulitzer's Liberty, George F. Baker's Viking, E. T. Stotesbury's Castle, Cranes' Illyria, Theodore N. Vail's Speedwell and Northwind, Commodore Frederick Bourne's Marjorie, Goulds' Hildegards, Saono, i and Ketchum. Edwin Gould built a private dock in front of his cottage, "Chichota." Andre Carnegie, whose family owned Cumberland Island, visited Jekyll on yachts, Skibo and Missoe.


    Lanier's Oak (historic marker)
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    During his visits to Brunswick in the 1870's Sidney Lanier, Georgia's greatest poet, frequently sat be- neath this live oak tree and looked out over "a world of marsh that borders a world of sea." Here he received the inspiration which re- sulted in some of his finest poems.

    Of these the best known is "THE MARSHES OF GLYNN."


    Le Sieur Christophe Anne Poulain du Bignon
    Le Sieur Christophe Anne Poulain du Bignon (1739-1825)

    Horton - du Bignon House du Bignon Burial Ground

    Beginning with Poulain du Bignon, five du Bignon generations made Jekyll Island one of Georgia's most romantic Golden Isles. This tabby ruin and burial ground alone remain from Jekyll Island's century (1794-1886) as the du Bignon Plantation. Christophe Poulain, native of Lamballe, Britanny, was a much-decorated French naval captain whose loyalty to Louis 16th in the French Revolution forced him to flee his patrimonial lands. In 1792 on his ship, the Sapelo, he brought his family to the hospitable Georgia Coast. With four other French royalists, he purchased first Sapelo Island and then Jekyll. By 1794 he acquired Jekyll as his own plantation and enlarged Major Horton's house as his manor. Sea Island Cotton recouped his fortunes and supported a Georgia dynasty of landed aristocracy like that established by his forebears. In 182 Poulain was buried near du Bignon Creek with a live oak tree as his monument. His son Henri added honors to the island plantation as he made the Goddess of Liberty reigning queen of coastal racing boats. And when Henri's grandson, John Eugene du Bignon, sold Jekyll to a group of millionaire capitalists, with them forming the Jekyll Island Club, Poulain du Bignon's island began a new chapter in its fabulous history.


    Located on Horton Rd. on Jekyll Island, Ga.

    M.E. Thompson and the Purchase of Jekyll Island
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    Melvin E. Thompson, Acting Governor, 1947-1949, was born in Millen, Jenkins County, Georgia, in 1903. After a career as educator and public servant, Thompson was elected Lieutenant Governor for the term beginning January, 1947. Following the death of Governor-Elect Eugene Talmadge, shortly before his in- auguration, Thompson became Acting Governor until the next scheduled general election.

    During his term as Acting Governor, one of his contributions to the state was the acquiring of Jekyll Island for $675,000. The state acquired Jekyll Island by a court condemnation decree, a bargain which has been compared to the original purchase of Manhattan Island. Jekyll Island has proved to be one of Georgia's greatest assets as a year round resort area.


    GHM 063-41

    Major William Horton
    Georgia Historic Marker:


    Born in England Came to Georgia in 1736 Died at Savannah in 1748

    These are the remains of Horton's tabby house. Major Horton of Oglethorpe's Regiment, the first English resident of Jekyll Island, erected on the north end of Jekyll a two-story dwelling and large barn. He cleared fields here for cultivation of crops which supplied the settlers at Frederica on St. Simons Island, a neighboring island, who would have suffered except for this assistance. Major Horton cut a road across the north end of Jekyll, running east and west, from this tabby house to the beach. This road is still knwon as the Horton Road.

    Major Horton was a trusted officer chosen by James Oglethorpe for important missions. Upon Oglethorpe's final return to England in 1743, Major Horton succeeded him as commander of the military forces of the Colony of Georgia.

    Poulain du Bignon, owner of Jekyll Island after the Revolutionary War, repaired the Horton tabby house and made it his home. As the du Bignon family grew, wooden wings were added to the house.


    Mark Carr
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    Brunswick's first settler came to Georgia in 1738 with Oglethorpe's regiment. He was granted 500 acres at this place, on which he establish- ed his plantation.

    Several tabby buildings erected by him stood nearby and a military outpost was maintained here.

    In 1741 Indians from Florida raided his plan- tation, causing 750 pounds damage. The Indians killed or wounded some of the soldiers, while others were taken prisoners.


    Mess Kettle from the "Wanderer"

    Mess Kettle from the "Wanderer"

    This mess kettle from the slave yacht, WANDERER, was used for feeding the slaves landed on Jekyll Island in 1858--the last slaves brought from Africa to the United States.

    The WANDERER, pleasure yacht, slave ship, gunboat, and coastal freighter, was launched in 1857, built by Joseph Rowland and Thomas Hawkins at East Setauket, Long Island, for J.D. Johnson, a wealthy Louisiana planter and member of the exclusive New York Yacht Club. Sold almost immediately to Johnson’s protégé, W.C. Corrie of Charleston, the WANDERER was used in the illicit slave trade by Corrie and his associates, Charles A.L. Lamar of Savannah and Nelson C. Trowbridge of New Orleans.

    At the outbreak of war in 1861, the WANDERER was caught in southern waters by the blockade and seized by Federal forces, whereupon she was pressed into Union service in the Pensacola area. After the war she was sold at auction and put into the West Indian fruit trade. The WANDERER was finally driven ashore and wrecked in 1871 on Cape Maisi, Cuba.

    Needwood Baptist Church and Needwood School

    Georgia Historical Marker:

    Needwood Baptist Church and Needwood School

    Needwood Baptist Church was organized in 1866 on nearby Broadfield Plantation as Broadfield Baptist Church of the Zion Baptist Association. This structure, built in the 1870s, was redesigned in 1885 when the church moved its congregation here. Its formation and history are representative of religious development in the context of plantation rice culture. The nearby one-room Needwood School provided elementary education for this community from 1907 until desegregation in the 1960s. Both structures are examples of early African-American vernacular architecture.

    Erected by the The Georgia Historical Society and the Pilot Club of Brunswick, Inc.

    1999-3 67-1

    Area: Glynn County, Georgia Location: 2 miles south of the intersection of Highways 17 and 99.

    Old Post Road
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    This road, formerly an Indian trail which par- alleled the coast, was used by the Spanish and British. In 1778 it was traveled by Revolutionary soldiers who marched against Fort Tonyn. The first mail service south of Savannah was estab- lished over this road in 1763. Later it became a regular stagecoach route.

    At Coleridge, a short distance north of the present Waycross Highway, Job Tyson main- tained a tavern for travelers along the post road. It was the only hostel between the Altamaha and Satilla rivers and was a regular stagecoach stop.


    Old Spanish Garden
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    Spain maintained missions along the coast for more than a century. Beginning in 1568 Jesuit and, later, Franciscan missionaries labored to Christianize the Indians and cultivated in the mission gardens figs, peaches, oranges and other plants introduced from Europe. Due to Indian uprisings, pirate raids and British depredations these missions were removed further south in 1686. A map of St. Simons Island made in 1739 by Capt. John Thomas, engineer in Oglethorpe's Regiment, locates an "OLD SPANISH GARDEN" near this site. In this area materials from the Spanish mission period have been found.


    Poulain du Bignon and Du Bignon Burying Ground
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    This burying ground contains the bodies of several members of the du Bignon family, descendants of Le Sieur Christophe Poulain de la Houssaye du Bignon, native of Saint-Malo in Brittany. One of four Frenchmen, former residents of Sapelo Island, who purchased Jekyll Island in 1791. Poulain du Bignon became the sole owner a few years later.

    In his youth du Bignon was an officer in the French army in India and served for years fighting against the domination of Great Britain. Later he commanded a vessel of war sailing under the French flag. He died in 1814 and was buried here near du Bignon Creek with a live oak tree as his only monument.

    Sea Island cotton was the principal crop planted on the du Bignon plantations on Jekyll Island and a large acreage was devoted to its cultivation.

    The du Bignon family owned Jekyll Island until 1886, when they sold it to a group of millionaires who immediately formed the famous Jekyll Island Club.

    Pulitzer-Albright Cottage

    Pulitzer-Albright Cottage

    On this site was the cottage of Joseph Pulitzer, editor of the St. Louis “Post Dispatch” and New York “World”. His bequests established the School (now Graduate School) of Journalism at Columbia University and the Pulitzer Prize program.

    After Pulitzer’s death, his 26 room island residence, built in 1903, was purchased by John Joseph Albright, art patron and coal magnate of Buffalo, New York. Among the distinguished guests of the Albrights on Jekyll Island was the English poet Alfred Noyes.

    Servants lived in a 12 room separate cottage. This building was bought by Frank L. Goodyear and moved to its present location. He gave it to the Jekyll Island Club as an infirmary and renamed it Goodyear Memorial Infirmary in memory of his mother, Mrs. Josephine L. Goodyear. From January to April, the infirmary was staffed each season by doctors from Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore.

    S.S. Oklahoma and Esso Baton Rouge attacked by U-123
    After midnight on April 8, 1942, the German submarine U-123 was in position off the St. Simons Island sea buoy. Minutes later it chased and torpedoed two tankers, the Oklahoma and Esso Baton Rouge, killing twenty-two crew members. Survivors were brought here to the U.S. Coast Guard Station for debriefing. Five of those killed were buried in Brunswick's Palmetto Cemetery as "Unknown Seamen," but were positively identified in 1998. The ships were raised, towed to Brunswick for emergency repairs and reentered into service. Both ships were sunk in the Atlantic Ocean before the end of World War II.

    Erected by The Georgia Historical Society and The Propeller Club of United States - Port No. 91, Brunswick, Georgia

    2000.17 63-3

    Sidney Lanier
    Georgia Historical Marker:

    SIDNEY LANIER Georgia's Greatest Poet

    Was a guest in this home on many occasions in the 1870's. It was then the residence of his wife's brother, Henry C. Day. On these visits Lanier became acquainted with "THE MARSHES OF GLYNN" which he immortalized.


    Slave Cabin
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    This tabby slave cabin of Retreat Plantation, now the Sea Island Golf Course, was one of eight cabins that stood in this area, known as New Field. The slaves who lived here tilled the Sea Island cotton fields nearby. Each of these cabins was 48 x 18 ft. with a partition and a chimney in the center. They stood about 300 feet apart and were shaded by beautiful live oak trees. Retreat Plantation, originally the property of the Spalding family, was sold to Major William Page whose daughter. Anna Matilda Page, married Hon. Thomas Butler King, M.C.


    Spanish on Jekyll Island, The
    Georgia Historical Marker:

    THE SPANISH ON JEKYLL ISLAND Within sight and sound of St. Simons Island, Jekyll Island was ideal for entertaining Spanish visitors to the settlement at Frederica. Major William Horton, resident of the island, received the guests while Oglethorpe on St. Simons, with cannon booming and his few soldiers appearing and reappearing on the south beach, professed a strength he did not have.

    In 1736, Spanish Commissioners Don Pedro Lamberto and Don Manuel d'Arcy, sent by Governor Sanchez of St. Augustine to discuss rival claims to the Georgia coast, were feted on Jekyll. On board the Sloop Hawk in Jekyll Sound, kilted Highlanders from Darien with clanging broadswords, Tomo-Chi-Chi and Hyllispilli with about 30 of their "chiefest" Indians in war paint and regella loudly denounced the Spanish and helped Oglethorpe impress the visitors with strength and good will of the colonists. Agreeing to leave all questions to the courts of Spain and England, the emissaries returned to St. Augustine pleased with their mission. Angered by the decision, Spain recalled and executed Governor Sanchez.

    After the Battle of Bloody Marsh, the Spaniards burned the buildings on Jekyll Island.


    St. Simons Island (Historical Marker)

    From March 9 - May 12, 1736, Charles Wesley, secretary to James Oglethorpe, was Anglican cleric to the founders of Fort Frederica. His stern discipline earned disfavor among the colonists and Oglethorpe. John Wesley, religious leader to the colony of Georgia, visited Charles in April 1736, preaching in the storehouse. Charles returned to England. John ministered to the Fredericans in four trips before leaving "with an utter despair of doing good there" on January 26, 1737. After John's return to England, in May 1738 the brothers had "heart warming experiences" and later founded the Methodist movement.


    St. Simons Park
    St. Simons Park was the site of a Mocama Indian village of approximately 100-200 people. The inhabitants used marine resources, agriculture, square wattle and daub houses, stamped and incised Irene style ceramics, and burial mounds characteristic of this late prehistoric coastal culture. The burial mounds were in use within the chiefdom of Guadalquini from the 1450s-1600s. Articles found there include ceramic bowls, pipes, and a rare chevron bead. The refuse midden area revealed that the Indians consumed fish, mollusks, deer, and small animals.

    Erected by the Georgia Historical Society, Friends of the Park, Coastal Georgia Historical Society, and Neptune Garden Club

    2002.2 63-4

    Georgia Historical Marker:


    Tabby was the building material for walls, floors, and roofs widely used throughout coastal Georgia during the Military and

    Plantation Eras. It was composed of equal parts of sand, lime, oyster shell and water mixed into a mortar and poured into forms.

    The limed used in tabby was made by burning oyster shell taken from Indian Shell Mounds, the trash piles of the Indians.

    The word tabby is African in origin, with an Arabic back- ground, and means "a wall made of earth or masonry." This method of building was brought to America by the Spaniards.

    When the Coquina (shell rock) quarries near St. Augustine were opened, hewn stone superseded tabby for wall construction there. Coastal Georgia has no coquina, so tabby continued to be used here even as late as the 1890's.


    Located on Horton Rd. at the Horton House, Jekyll Island, Ga.

    Wesley Oak (historic marker)
    Georgia Historical Marker:


    Not far from this spot stood the "great tree" under which Charles Wesley had prayers and preached, March 14, 1736, the first Sunday after his arrival. There were about twenty people present, among whom was Mr. Oglethorpe. A year later, George Whitfield, appointed by the Bishop of London to serve as Deacon at Savannah and Frederica, wrote in his Journal (August 8, 1737): "In the evening we had pub- lick Prayers, and expounding of the second Lesson under a large tree, and many more present than could be expected." A wooden Cross made from a tree long designated as the Wesley Oak hangs on the wall of Christ Church near the pulpit.


    William Bartram Trail
    A Plaque Reads:

    National Council of State Garden Clubs

    Deep South Region

    WILLIAM BARTRAM TRAIL Traced 1773-1777

    In 1774 William Bartram came to Frederica. He explored St. Simons Island and noted the flora and beautiful live oaks.

    erected by St. Simons Council of Garden Clubs in cooperation with The Oleander District of the Garden Club of Georgia, Inc. and The National Park Service